Is Self-hosting Email in 2023 Feasible?

In today’s digital world, the majority of people rely on webmail providers for their email needs. These platforms offer user-friendly interfaces, easy accessibility, and hassle-free maintenance. However, there are individuals who prefer self-hosting their email for various reasons, such as privacy concerns, the desire for greater control over their data, and the need to avoid potential account shutdowns. In this blog post, we will explore the feasibility of self-hosting email in 2023 and delve into the challenges and advantages it presents.

The Convenience of Webmail Providers

Webmail providers have gained popularity due to their simplicity and convenience. For less technically inclined users, these services offer a straightforward approach to email management. Users can access their emails through a web browser from any device, eliminating the need for complex server setups or technical configurations. With features like spam filtering, automatic backups, and user-friendly interfaces, webmail providers cater to the needs of a wide range of users.

Considerations for Avoiding ISP Email Accounts: Portability, Limitations, and Security Risks

While it may be tempting to use your Internet Service Provider’s (ISP) email account for convenience, there are several reasons why it may not be the optimal choice.

Firstly, ISP-provided email accounts are often tied to your internet subscription, meaning that if you decide to switch ISPs, you may lose access to your email address. This lack of portability can be a significant inconvenience, especially if you have been using the email address for personal or business communications.

Additionally, ISP email accounts typically offer limited storage space and may lack advanced features and customization options compared to popular webmail providers.

Furthermore, relying solely on your ISP’s email account means entrusting your data to a single provider, potentially increasing the vulnerability of your information to data breaches or service interruptions.

Therefore, it is generally advisable to explore alternative email hosting options that provide more flexibility, robust features, and greater control over your email data.

Reasons for Self-Hosting Email

While webmail providers offer convenience, there are compelling reasons why some individuals choose to self-host their email.

Privacy is a significant concern, as self-hosting allows users to have full control over their data, reducing the risk of third-party surveillance or data breaches.

Self-hosting also ensures independence from service providers, mitigating the risk of account shutdowns due to policy changes or violations.

For tech-savvy individuals, self-hosting offers the freedom to customize and tailor their email infrastructure to their specific needs.

The Dual Nature of Email: Receive vs. Send

Email services encompass two primary functions: receiving and sending. While both are essential, each presents distinct challenges.

On the receiving end, the primary challenge lies in correctly classifying incoming spam. Self-hosted email servers must employ robust spam filtering mechanisms to distinguish between legitimate emails and unwanted messages. Implementing techniques such as spam blocklists, content analysis, and user-defined filters becomes crucial in effectively managing the influx of spam and ensuring that important emails are not lost in the clutter.

On the sending end, the primary challenge revolves around deliverability. Due to the prevalence of spam and security concerns, other email servers are often skeptical of emails originating from self-hosted servers. This skepticism can lead to blocking or filtering of emails, making it difficult to ensure reliable delivery. Building a positive reputation, implementing authentication mechanisms such as SPF, DKIM, and DMARC, and actively monitoring and addressing any deliverability issues are necessary to improve the chances of successful email delivery from self-hosted servers.

Fighting Spam with SPF, DKIM, and DMARC

To combat spam and protect email users, various protocols have been developed. SPF (Sender Policy Framework), DKIM (DomainKeys Identified Mail), and DMARC (Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting, and Conformance) are authentication mechanisms that help verify the legitimacy of email senders.

SPF checks if the server sending an email is authorized to do so on behalf of the domain, while DKIM uses digital signatures to verify the integrity of email content. DMARC provides policies for email receivers to determine how to handle emails that fail SPF or DKIM checks.

While implementing these protocols on a self-hosted email server can enhance email deliverability and reduce the chances of legitimate messages being marked as spam, factors such as recipient server policies and other anti-spam measures can still impact email delivery.

Spam Blocklists and Cloud Provider IPs

Spam blocklists play a crucial role in filtering out unwanted emails. These lists contain IP addresses that have been identified as sources of spam. Unfortunately, many cloud providers’ IP addresses often end up on these blocklists due to their shared infrastructure and potential misuse by other users.

Consequently, self-hosted email servers using cloud provider IPs may face challenges in email deliverability. While proactive monitoring and prompt response to any potential issues can help in getting your email server’s IP removed from blocklists, it is important to note that it might not always be possible to remove an IP from a blocklist.

Some blocklists have strict policies or lengthy removal processes, which can pose challenges for self-hosted email servers. In such cases, alternative measures like working with your cloud provider or utilizing email relay services may be necessary to improve email deliverability and bypass blocklist-related hurdles.

ISPs and Port 25: A Barrier to Self-Hosting Email at Home

Self-hosting email at home faces an additional challenge due to most Internet Service Providers (ISPs) blocking outbound connections on port 25. Port 25 is the default port used for SMTP, the protocol responsible for sending emails.

ISPs often implement this restriction as a measure to prevent spam and abuse originating from residential networks. By blocking port 25, ISPs aim to ensure that email traffic is routed through their own mail servers, which are typically better equipped to handle spam filtering and security measures.

This limitation poses a significant hurdle for individuals looking to self-host email at home, as it prevents direct outbound email delivery. However, alternative solutions such as using a non-standard port or utilizing SMTP relay services provided by ISPs or third-party providers may bypass this restriction and allow for self-hosted email setups.

Challenges with Destination Acceptance

Even if your self-hosted email server is not on any spam blocklists, some email service providers may still refuse to accept emails from self-hosted servers. These providers employ strict anti-spam measures, and smaller or newer email servers may face additional scrutiny. This can result in occasional email delivery issues when communicating with recipients who use these services.

One such example is, a popular email service provider in Germany. Notably, has implemented strict policies where they outright refuse to accept email from non-commercial entities, including self-hosted email servers.

As mentioned, we only allow evidently commercial or similar operators to connect to our mailservers. Such a usage is not evident for your host with the IP address x.x.x.x and the hostname There is no data available at or about the (natural or legal) person who is responsible for this system.

Email received from Postmaster in response to a request to unblock my email server

This restriction can be particularly frustrating for individuals or small organizations seeking to communicate with users. It highlights that even with diligent efforts to meet technical requirements, external factors such as recipient server policies can impact email delivery.

It is important to be aware of such limitations and consider alternative communication methods or intermediary services when faced with the refusal of certain email providers.


Self-hosting email in 2023 is feasible but demands dedication, technical expertise, and continuous maintenance. While it provides greater control over data, enhanced privacy, and independence from service providers, running an email server requires knowledge of protocols, spam prevention techniques, and the ability to navigate potential issues with email deliverability. It is crucial to weigh the advantages and challenges carefully before deciding to self-host email, as it may not guarantee 100% performance or compatibility with all email service providers.

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